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Learning can be affectively inaccessible when success requires students to set personally motivating goals and expectations, and where there are no options provided for students who differ in their ability to do so. Goal setting is an essential aspect of self-regulation; setting goals to avoid frustration, to modulate anxiety, and to set positive expectations are important skills to learn. Yet, these goals will vary greatly according to individual student needs - some students need to dampen anxiety to succeed while others may need to elevate it somewhat. The evidence listed here suggests the effectiveness of explicitly teaching and scaffolding goal-setting strategies and of empowering students to set their own goals. The scholarly reviews and expert opinions provide a more classroom-based perspective of the importance of guiding personal goal-setting and expectations.
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Last Updated: 02/01/2011