Feedback that orients students toward mastery and that emphasizes the role of effort and practice rather than “intelligence” or inherent “ability” is an important factor in guiding students toward successful long-term habits of mind. The experimental and quantitative evidence listed here reveals the advantages of strategies such as providing feedback that encourages perseverance, focusing on development of efficacy and self-awareness, encouraging the use of specific supports in the face of challenge, and emphasizing individual effort rather than relative performance. The scholarly reviews and expert opinions offer more classroom-based perspectives on the importance of providing mastery-oriented feedback to students.
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Last Updated: 02/01/2011