Maintaining engagement over the course of any sustained lesson or project can be difficult for many learners. Research shows the importance of incorporating periodic or persistent “reminders” of both the goal and its value in order to support students in sustaining effort and concentration in the face of attractive distracters. The majority of the experimental studies listed here evaluate the effectiveness of various specific techniques for doing so: persistent display (concrete or symbolic) of the goal, prompts or scaffolds for visualizing desired outcomes, and rubrics to explicitly state goals and objectives. The scholarly reviews and opinion pieces provide more classroom-based perspectives on providing options to heighten salience of goals and objectives. Many of the articles listed here focus upon the use of rubrics in the classroom and offer an array of practical examples.
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Aboderin, A. O., & Thomas, M. (1996). An evaluation of the influence of behavioural objectives on Nigerian students' cognitive achievement in biology. Research in Science & Technological Education, 14(2), 193-204.
Andrade, H. G. (1999, April). The role of instructional rubrics and self-assessment in learning to write: A smorgasbord of findings. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Quebec.
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Last Updated: 02/01/2011