Learning can be inaccessible when it requires the ability to manage information and resources, and where there are no options for individuals who differ in such executive functions. Wherever executive functions or working memory capacity are not construct-relevant in a lesson, it is important to provide a variety of internal scaffolds and external organizational aids to keep information organized and “in mind.” The research listed here suggests the effectiveness of strategies such as graphic and cognitive organizers, concept maps, explicit instruction in how to evaluate information, and templates for note-taking. The scholarly reviews and opinion pieces provide more classroom-based perspectives on facilitating students' management of information and resources.
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Alvermann, D. E., & Boothby, P. R. (1986). Children's transfer of graphic organizer instruction. Reading Psychology, 7(2), 87-100.
Anderson-Inman, L., Knox-Quinn, C., & Horney, M. A. (1996). Computer-based study strategies for students with learning disabilities: Individual differences associated with adoption level. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(5), 461-484.
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Last Updated: 02/01/2011