Learning can be inaccessible when it requires planning and strategy development, and where there are no options for individuals who differ in such executive functions. Young children, older students in a new domain, or any student with one of the disabilities that compromise executive functions (e.g. ADHD, ADD, Autism Spectrum Disorders) often are weak at planning and strategy development and impulsive trial and error dominates their learning. The experimental studies collected here suggest a variety of options to help students become more planful and strategic – explicit strategy instruction for planning and revising, concept mapping, etc. The scholarly reviews and expert opinions provide a more classroom based perspective on effectively supporting students’ planning and strategy development.
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Last Updated: 02/01/2011