Glossary

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B

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D

E

F

G

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I

L

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M(cont'd)

N

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Accessibility

In the context of technology, accessibility most commonly refers to providing access for all people to web environments, including people with disabilities. Designing sites for the way that screen readers, text browsers, and other adaptive technologies interact with the web; choosing contrasting colors for readability; and providing alternative text tags for graphics are examples of making web sites more accessible.

Also see: Universal Design for Learning (UDL); Universal Design (UD)

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The National Center on Universal Design for Learning website was designed to be compatible with screen readers in order to increase its accessibility.

Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM)

Specialized formats of curricular content that can be used by and with learners who have print disablilities and include: braille, audio, large print, and electronic text.

Also see: NIMAS

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The student, who is visually impaired, relies on several different forms of accessible instructional materials in order to access her printed textbooks. She prefers to use a Braille format in the classroom and an audio format at home.

Web Resource

National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials: http://aim.cast.org/

Accommodation to instruction

Refers to a change in instruction that does not result in a change in the standards or instructional goals for a student
Also see: Modification; Assistive technology 

A change in instruction that does not result in a change in the standards or instructional goals for a student.

Also see: Modification; Assistive technology

Source: Adapted from: Ysseldyke, J., Thurlow, M., Seyfarth, A., Bielinski, J., Moody, M., & Haigh, J. (1999). NCEO Maryland/Kentucky Report 6. National Center on Educational Outcomes.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The student will need to use her assistive technology in math class to manipulate objects using a touch screen as an accommodation to instruction

Accountability

The idea or belief that schools and teachers must take responsibility for measurable student learning.

Also see: Standards-based assessment; No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

Term in Context

Example Sentence

As part of the state's accountability system, all students must take a state-wide English Language Arts and Mathematics assessment.

Affect

The experience of feeling or emotion.

Source: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/affect

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher was concerned because he noticed a change in the student's affect; usually she was energetic and lively, and today she appeared disinterested and preoccupied.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

III. Multiple Means of Engagement

Affective networks

Networks in the brain that enable us to engage with learning; networks specialized to evaluate patterns and impact emotional significance to them.

Also see: Strategic networks; Recognition networks; Multiple means of action and expression; Multiple means of representation; Multiple means of engagement

Brain diagram - affective network

Image description: This medial view of the brain shows the limbic lobe, site of the affective networks. The limbic lobe includes primitve cortical tissue (stippled area), the fontal lobes, and underlying cortical structures (hippocampus and dentate gyrus, not shown).

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Preferences for movies, motivation to get up early and go to the gym, and nervous feelings before a big presentation are all everyday examples of your affective network in action.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Federal law that protects persons with disabilities from discrimination in the operations of public businesses and governments.

Source: http://www.ncld.org/resources1/glossaries/idea-terms-to-know

Term in Context

Web Resource

Information and Technical Assistance on the Americans with Disabilities Act: http://www.ada.gov/

Apprenticeship

Refers to a relationship between a novice and an expert in which the expert supports the novice by providing ample opportunities to practice; ongoing, immediate, and relevant feedback; and opportunities to demonstrate skill.

Also see: Modeling; Mentoring; Coaching

Term in Context

Example Sentence

When teaching how to draw, the art teacher used an apprenticeship model, giving novice students hands-on experience and the opportunity to learn from more experienced peers.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Apprenticeships are referred to throughout the UDL Guidelines.
http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines

Appropriate level of challenge

Learners make progress when the task they put their minds to is neither overwhelmingly difficult nor boringly easy.

Also see: Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD); Scaffold

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The student found that Lois Lowry's The Giver was written at an appropriate level of challenge. She was able to comprehend the dialog and storyline, and she was challenged by a few vocabulary terms that she needed to look up in the dictionary.

Assessment

Assessment is described as the process of gathering information about a learner’s performance using a variety of methods and materials in order to determine learners’ knowledge, skills, and motivation for the purpose of making informed educational decisions. Within the UDL framework, the goal is to improve the accuracy and timeliness of assessments, and to ensure that they are comprehensive and articulate enough to guide instruction – for all learners. This is achieved in part by keen focus on the goal, as distinct from the means, enabling the provision of supports and scaffolds for construct irrelevant items. By broadening means to accommodate learner variability, UDL assessments reduce or remove barriers to accurate measurement of learner knowledge, skills, and engagement.

Also see: Formative assessment; Summative assessment; Standards-based assessment; Embedded assessment; Progress monitoring; Rubric

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Assessments can provide teachers with data regarding students' progress and can also inform teachers regarding the effectiveness of their instructional techniques.  

Assistive Technology (AT)

Devices or services that are used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a student with a disability.

Also see: Supports

Source: Adapted from: http://idea.ed.gov/download/statute.html IDEA 2004 34 C.F.R. 300.5, 300.6

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Text-to-speech (TtS) software is an assistive technology that reads any digital text aloud.

Automaticity

A general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness; skills become automatic after extended periods of training with practice and good instruction.

Also see: Transfer

Source: Adapted from: http://www.ldonline.org/glossary#A

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The student's automaticity in reading allows her to have a deeper understanding of complex essays since her brain does not have to spend a lot of energy in decoding the text. 

Avatar

A graphical image that represents a person, as on the Internet.

Source: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/avatar

image of an avatar

 

Image description: This avatar is a digital image of a young girl with ribbons in her hair.

Source: Flickr Creative Commons license, image by Mark Wallace

 

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The students created avatars to look like themselves: they had choices in hair, skin, eye color, and even in the types of clothing.

Barrier

Anything that restrains or obstructs progress in fulfilling the task at hand.

Source: Adapted from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/barriers

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The student is unable to decode the text of a short story he is assigned for his English class. Even though he understands the language and story structure, he is unable to read for understanding since decoding is a barrier to his learning.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Barriers are referred to throughout the UDL Guidelines:
http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines

CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology)

A nonprofit research and development organization that works to expand learning opportunities for all individuals, especially those with disabilities, through Universal Design for Learning.

Also see: Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

Term in Context

Chunking

A procedure of breaking up learning materials into manageable sections (e,g., grouping of words in sentences into short meaningful phrases).

Source: Adapted from: Casteel, C. (1988). Effects of chunked reading among learning disabled students: An experimental comparison of computer and traditional chunked passages. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 17(2), 115-21.

Unchunked math items Chunked math items

Image description: In the image to the left, the math items are not chunked; the student must complete all 8 items in one sitting. However, in the image on the right, the items are chunked, and the student is responsible for completing only the first 3 items at one time.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Instead of asking the student to complete the entire chapter in one night, the teacher and the student worked together to chunk the assignment into more manageable pieces.

Coach

Live or animated support provided by an agent to help the performance of a task; aimed at improving the performance of the learner.

Also see: Mentors; Models; Scaffold

Source: Adapted from: http://dl2k.dc2es.tnc.edu.tw/jtmax/Abstract/Scaffolding/Modeling,%20coaching,%20scaffolding.htm

Image of a Coach

 

 

Image description: Image of a cartoon dog who offers suggestions on organization skills.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

A coach embedded into a learning environment designed to teach students about states of matter asked students, "What is the process of sublimation?"

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Coaches are referred to throughout the UDL Guidelines

Cognitive

Having to do with the mental processes by which knowledge is acquired.

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The teacher used several techniques to develop students' cognitive skills during the lesson. She asked students to make predictions, ask clarifying questions, and summarize information.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Guideline 3: Provide options for comprehension

Collaborative learning

An umbrella term for the variety of approaches and models in education that involve the shared intellectual efforts by students working in small groups to accomplish a goal or complete a task.

Source: http://www.learnnc.org/reference/collaborative%20learning

Term in Context

Example Sentences

As a final project for the unit on The Revolutionary War, the teacher wanted to focus on collaborative learning. The class was responsible for writing and producing a fifteen minute play that would capture a critical event that took place during the War.

Concept map

A visual display that supports comprehension by depicting the relationships between concepts within a learning task.

Also see: Graphic organizer; Semantic map

Concept Map

 

 

 

Image description: This concept map illustrates the relationship between the challenges (higher standards and greater diversity) and the opportunities (new brain research in individual differences in learning and new technologies for teaching and learning) associated with Universal Design for Learning. 

Term in Context

Example Sentence

In order to support students' understanding of the causes of the Civil War, the teacher asked students to create a concept map that depicted the relationship between the various events. 

Construct irrelevant

The extent to which test scores are influenced by factors (e.g., mode of presentation or response) that are irrelevant (not related) to the construct that the test is intended to measure.

Also see: Construct relevant

Source: Adapted from: American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association, p. 173. 

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Changing the font size and increasing the sizing of images helped the student to see the math item more clearly; this change was construct irrelevant to the math skills being assessed by the item.

Construct relevant

Refers to the factors (e.g. mode of presentation or response) that are relevant (related) to the construct that the test is intended to measure.

Also see: Construct irrelevant

Source: Adopted from: Madaus, G., Russell, M. & Higgins, J. (2009). The paradoxes of high stakes testing: How they affect students, their parents, teachers, principals, schools and society. Information Age Publishing, Inc.: Charlotte, NC.

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The teacher wanted to adapt an assessment item to make it more accessible for his student. However, he realized that identifying the symbols for a math calculation problem is a construct relevant change to the assessment item.

Curriculum

The overall plan for instruction, and the materials, methods, and assessments to carry out the plan; comprised of four main components:

   1. Goals and milestones for instruction

   2. Media and materials to be used by students

   3. Specific instructional methods

   4. Means of assessment to measure student progress

Also see: Method; Pedagogy

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The UDL framework can be applied to all aspects of the curriculum in order to decrease barriers and increase opportunities for learning.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

What is meant by the term "curriculum"?

Decode

The ability to sound out letters and words.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Since the student was not able to decode the text, he was not able to access the meaning or to fully participate in the class discussion.

Differentiated Instruction (DI)

An approach to teaching that includes various approaches to content, process, and product in order to meet the needs of student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs.

Source: Adapted from: Tomlinson, C. A., (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. (2nd Ed.) Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Term in Context

Example Sentences

Differentiated Instruction and UDL share the same goal: to maximize learning opportunities for all students. The distinction between the two frameworks lies within the goal; DI focuses on differentiating with a focus at the student level, whereas UDL focuses on designing flexible curricula with the needs of the broadest range of students in mind from the start.

Web Resource

Differentiated Instruction and Implications for UDL Implementation:

http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstructudl.html

Direct instruction

An instructional approach that emphasizes the use of carefully sequenced steps (i.e., scripted lectures or demonstrations) to teach specific academic content; the approach is contrasted with more open-ended approaches, such as hands-on learning or inquiry-based learning.

Source: http://www.ldonline.org/glossary#D

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher used a carefully scripted lesson to provide direct instruction on phonics.

Diversity

Differences between students in ability/disability, culture, language, race, background, etc.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

UDL gives us a framework for addressing the diversity of the students in our classrooms.

E-text (or digital text)

A book, article, or other published material that can be retrieved by and read via an electronic device.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Instead of reading the article in the magazine, I obtained the e-text version and had my laptop read it aloud to me while I was on the train. 

Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

The principal federal law affecting public education from kindergarten through high school in the United States. From 2001-2009, the law was known as the No Child Left Behind Act but is again referred to as ESEA in current policy discussions.

Also see: Accountability; No Child Left Behind; Standards-based assessment

Source: http://www.ncld.org/resources1/glossaries/idea-terms-to-know

Term in Context

Web Resource

Elementary and Secondary Education: http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/beginning.html

Embedded assessment

A method for measuring knowledge and ability where evaluations are part of the learning activity rather than happening after the fact.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher found that one advantage of using technology was embedded assessment; it allowed her to see student progress within the learning activity rather than just after instruction. 

English Language Learners (ELLs)

A term used to describe students who are in the process of acquiring English language skills and knowledge; some schools refer to these students using the term limited-English-proficient (LEP).

Also see: Diversity

Source: http://nationsreportcard.gov/glossary.asp

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The student from Italy was placed with the other ELLs at a beginner level.

Web Resource

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/

Executive Functions (EF)

Associated with the prefrontal cortex in the brain, these capabilities allow humans to overcome impulsive, short-term reactions to their environment and to instead set long-term goals, plan effective strategies for reaching those goals, monitor their progress, and modify strategies as needed.

Also see: Metacognition; Self-monitor; Self-regulation

Term in Context

Example Sentences

In order to support the student's executive functions in an assessment situation, the teacher provided him with a graphic organizer indicating all the items on his test. The graphic also showed the student where he could take a break. This strategy allowed him to monitor his progress as he completed test items. 

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Guideline 6: Provide options for executive functions

Feedback

An evaluative response about the result of a process or activity.

Also see: Formative assessment

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The teacher provided the student with constructive feedback on ways to improve his project on the water cycle. She stated that she was impressed by the visual that he created to depict water's journey, and she suggested that he may also want to include labels for each step.

Flexible curricula

Curricula designed to be adjustable from the beginning, so it can adapt to the needs of diverse learners without significant add-ons.

Also see: Options in the means; Options in the mode

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher found that it was more efficient to create flexible curricula that accounted for all learners from the start rather than modifying preexisting curricula.

Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)

Special education and related services provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge mandated by IDEA.

Also see: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); Least Restrictive Environment (LRE); Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

Term in Context

Web Resource

Free Appropriate Public Education for Students With Disabilities: Requirements Under Section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/edlite-FAPE504.html

Formative assessment

Assessments given primarily to determine what students have learned in order to plan further instruction during the instructional episode; by contrast, an examination used primarily to document students' achievement at the end of a unit or course is considered a summative test.

Also see: Summative assessment; Standards-based assessment; Embedded assessment 

Source: Adapted from: http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Lexicon_of_Learning/F.aspx 

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher's use of formative assessment allowed her to adjust her daily lessons and instruction in order to maximize just in time learning.

Functional knowledge

A student's cognitive performance under ordinary, low-support conditions.

Also see: Optimal knowledge

Sources: Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Term in Context

Example Sentences

Today, the teacher is assessing one of her student's functional knowledge. The student will be provided with the access supports that he typically uses (large print and high contrast materials); however, he will not be provided with scaffolds such as models or prompts. 

Graphic organizer

A visual representation of textual information and ideas. Concept maps, story maps, advance organizers, story webs, semantic maps, and cognitive organizers are all commonly used graphic organizers.

Also see: Concept map; Semantic map

Graphic Organizer

Image description: This graphic organizer provides a visual way to organize information about UDL based around origins, application, implementation, and principles.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

In order to support his students' writing, the teacher provided graphic organizers to facilitate the organization of their ideas.

Higher Education Opportunity Act 2008 (HEOA)

Reauthorizes the Higher Education Act of 1965 (Pub. L. No. 89-329), legislation signed into United States law on November 8, 1965 as part of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society domestic agenda. The law was intended “to strengthen the educational resources of our colleges and universities and to provide financial assistance for students in postsecondary and higher education.” 

The 2008 reauthorization established the first statutory definition for universal design for learning. This definition incorporates the three principles of UDL--representation, expression, and engagement--and emphasizes reducing barriers with appropriate supports and challenges built into instruction.

Source: Adapted from: http://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Higher-Education-Act-of-1965

Term in Context

Location within the National Center on UDL Website

How US Federal Statue Defines UDL

References to UDL in Public Policy

Web Resource

Higher Education Opportunity Act - 2008: http://ed.gov/policy/highered/leg/hea08/index.html

UDL language highlighted within the HEOA: http://www.advocacyinstitute.org/UDL/HEOA.shtml

Hyperlink

A piece of text or a graphic within an electronic document that provides access to content within another document or website.

image of text wrapped around an image of a coyote. There are words that are linked.

 

 

 

Image description: All of the underlined terms on this page, such as coyotes and vocalization, are hyperlinks that bring the reader to a glossary, which provides a definition for the reader. 

Term in Context

Example Sentence

While searching the web, the student clicked on a hyperlinked word, and a new window with a definition of the word.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

A federal law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation, IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities.

Also see: Least Restrictive Environment (LRE); Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE); National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS); Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

Source: Adapted from: http://idea.ed.gov/

Term in Context

Web Resource

Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004 http://idea.ed.gov/

Inquiry-based instruction

A student-centered and teacher-guided instructional approach that engages students in investigating real world questions that they choose within a broad thematic framework; students acquire and analyze information, develop and support propositions, provide solutions, and design technology and arts products that demonstrate their thinking and make their learning visible.

Also see: Project-based learning

Source: Adapted from: http://www.neiu.edu/~middle/Modules/science%20mods/amazon%20components/AmazonComponents2.html

Term in Context

Example Sentence

As part of the inquiry-based instructional unit on green energy, students were responsible for collecting information about the school's energy efficiency, developing at least three recommendations, and presenting these recommendations to the school board.

Web Resource

Inquiry Based Science: What does it look like?

http://www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/classroom/inquiry_based.html

Instructional media

Materials that teachers use to teach and students use to learn (for example, printed text, digitized text, speech, images). When individual forms of instructional media (text, video, audio) are combined to represent information in multiple ways they are called multimedia.

Also see: Print instructional materials; Materials; Multimedia

Term in Context

Example Sentence

For the unit on the Civil Rights Movement, the social studies teacher included a range of instructional media: video clips, the era's most popular songs, primary source documents, and a slide show of photographs.

Integrated unit

Lessons that integrate math, science, language arts, and/or other subject areas in the process of teaching and learning about a specific topic.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The 3rd grade team worked together to design an integrated unit on the ocean that incorporated content in marine biology, geography, ecology, history, mathematics, and literature.

Learning standards

Subject matter benchmarks used to measure students' academic achievement; guidelines published by professional organizations or enacted by government specifying what is to be taught and learned.

Also see: Standards-based assessment

Term in Context

Example Sentence

As educators design lesson plans, they often take into account the district, state or national learning standards to help determine what knowledge the student should be able to demonstrate. 

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Refers to the IDEA’s mandate that schools educate students with disabilities in integrated settings, alongside students with and without disabilities, to the maximum extent appropriate.

Also see: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)

Source: Adapted from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/mainstreaming-inclusion/

Term in Context

Web Resource

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) & FAPE

http://www.wrightslaw.com/advoc/articles/idea.lre.fape.htm

Masking

An effective way to allow a reader to focus on the more relevant information of the text; done by covering up unnecessary text as well as hiding other distractions.

Source: Adapted from: www.cehd.umn.edu/nceo/Teleconferences/tele16/AccommodationGuidelines2008-2009.pdf

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The teacher encouraged some of her students to place a piece of paper under the line of text that they were reading. This strategy allowed the students to focus on one line of text at a time and masked the other text on the page.

Mastery-orientated feedback

Feedback that emphasizes the role of effort and practice rather than “intelligence” or inherent “ability.”

Also see: Progress monitoring

Source: Adapted from: Kamins, M. L., & Dweck, C. S. (1999). Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping. Developmental Psychology, 35(3), 835-847.

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The teacher used mastery-oriented feedback to notify one student in her reading group how he was doing. Rather than telling him he was "very smart," she commented on how he was working hard at answering in complete sentences.

Materials

Materials are usually seen as the media used to present learning content and what the learner uses to demonstrate knowledge. Within the UDL framework, the hallmark of materials is their variability and flexibility. For conveying conceptual knowledge, UDL materials offer multiple media and embedded, just-in-time supports such as hyperlinked glossaries, background information, and on-screen coaching. For strategic learning and expression of knowledge, UDL materials offer tools and supports needed to access, analyze, organize, synthesize, and demonstrate understanding in varied ways. For engaging with learning, UDL materials offer alternative pathways to success including choice of content where appropriate, varied levels of support and challenge, and options for recruiting and sustaining interest and motivation.

Also see: Instructional media; Print instructional materials

Term in Context

Example Sentence

In order to develop students' ability to manage information, the English teacher created a checklist of the materials that they were responsible for bring to class each day: grammar textbook, ELA textbook, and their writing manuals.

Media literacy

The ability to access, analyze, evaluate and create media in a variety of forms.

Also see: Multimedia

Source: http://www.medialit.org/reading_room/rr2def.php

Term in Context

Example Sentences

As an ongoing theme throughout the school year, the teacher worked to develop students' media literacy. She used an array of formats to present content, and she varied the media with which students could use to express their learning.

Media specific barrier

Something inherent to the mode of presentation that is immaterial that obstructs or impedes access to and or use.

Also see: Multimedia; Instructional media; Print instructional materials; Materials

Source: Adapted from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/barriers?fromAsk=true&o=100074

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The small font size of the student's copy of The Call of the Wild presented a media-specific barrier since the student could not clearly see the words on each page.

Mentor

An expert who acts as a kind of guide or coach to a novice who is learning a new skill.

Also see: Coaches; Modeling; Scaffold; Apprenticeship

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The school created a "Reading Buddies" program where sixth grade students act as mentors to first grade students during reading time.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Mentors are referred to throughout the UDL Guidelines.

Web Resource

Resources for Teacher Leadership: Mentoring and Coaching

http://cse.edc.org/products/teacherleadership/mentoring.asp

Meta-awareness

The ability to be self-reflective or aware of one's own progress as a learner.

Also see: Metacognition

Term in Context

Example Sentence

At the end of the school year, the teacher asked students to reflect about their learning over the course of the year in their journals as a way to develop meta-awareness.

Metacognition

The process of "thinking about thinking." For example, good readers use metacognition before reading when they clarify their purpose for reading and preview the text.

Also see: Meta-awareness

Source: http://www.ldonline.org/glossary#M

Term in Context

Example Sentence

In an effort to develop students' metacognition, the teacher asked students to describe, in their own words, the purpose of the assignment. 

Method

Methods are generally defined as the instructional decisions, approaches, procedures, or routines that expert teachers use to accelerate or enhance learning. Expert teachers apply evidence-based methods and differentiate those methods according to the goal of instruction. UDL curricula facilitate further differentiation of methods, based on learner variability in the context of the task, learner’s social/emotional resources, and the classroom climate. Flexible and varied, UDL methods are adjusted based on continual monitoring of learner progress.

Also see: Pedagogy; Curriculum

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The teacher decided to try a creative method in this math class. He sang a song about fractions as a way to introduce this concept to his students.

Mnemonic

Having to do with memory.

Also see: Working memory

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=neurosci&part=A2251

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The music teacher introduced a mnemonic device to help her students learn the lines of the treble staff - EGBDF: "Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge."

Modality

A category of function; for example, vision, hearing, and touch are different sensory modalities.

Also see: Multi-modal

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=neurosci&part=A2251

Term in Context

Example Sentence

In order to incorporate a range of modalities in the lesson on the life cycle of plants, the teachers encouraged students to touch, smell, and feel the different seeds that were on the table.

Web Resource

Learning Modalities: Pathways to Effective Learning

http://www.pbs.org/teachers/earlychildhood/articles/learningmodalities.html

Modeling

1. To "show" or "demonstrate."  A teacher may clarify to students what is expected by performing the behavior as a model of what to do. The purpose of this form of modeling is clear communication.

2. To "practice what you preach." In regular practice and behavior, the teacher is a model of thoroughness, or self-evaluation, or courtesy, or whatever else is expected of students.

Also see: Coaches; Mentor; Scaffold; Apprenticeship

Source: Saphier, J., & Gower, R. (1997). The skillful teacher: Building your teaching skills. Acton, Massachusetts: Research fro Better Teaching, Inc. (p. 298).

Term in Context

Example Sentence

In order to demonstrate proper technique, the teacher modeled to students how to begin to dissect the frog.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Modeling is referred to throughout the UDL Guidelines.

Modification

When a curriculum modification is made, either the specific subject matter is altered, or the performance level expected of the student is changed; a curriculum modification is made when a student is either taught something different from the rest of the class or taught the same information but at a different level of complexity.

Also see: Accommodations to instruction; Assistive technology

Source: Nolet, V., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2005). Accessing the general curriculum: Including students with disabilities in standards-based reform. CA: Corwin Press, Inc. (p. 87)

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The student's IEP team decided to make a modification to the unit on Mark Twain's Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Instead of reading the original work, the student would read an abridged version written at his individual reading level.

Multi-modal

Having more than one form of sensation, such as vision or touch.

Also see: Modality

Source: Adapted from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/multi-modal

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The teacher took a multi-modal approach to the lesson on magnetism. He began the lesson with a video and then designed an activity where students could touch and interact with real magnets. 

Multimedia

Combining several media in one presentation; for example a multimedia Web page may combine text, graphics, audio clips, and video.

Also see: Media specific barriers; Instructional media; Materials; Media literacy

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The student's multimedia presentation on climate change impressed her audience; her peers and her teacher were highly engaged by her use of graphics, video, and audio clips.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Checkpoint 5.1: Options in the media for communication

Multiple means of action and expression

The "how" of learning. Students are different in the ways that they express their knowledge; therefore, it is crucial to allow them to express verbally, physically, with written text, etc.

Also see: Multiple means of engagement; Multiple means of representation; Recognition networks; Strategic Networks; Affective networks

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher used multiple means of action and expression to assess what students had learned during the unit on the nervous system; students had the option of creating a diagram, an animation, a magazine article, or a poster.

Multiple means of engagement

The "why" of learning. Students are different in the ways that they will become interested or motivated to learn; therefore, it is crucial to provide multiple ways to engage learners.

Also see: Multiple means of action and expression; Multiple means of representation; Recognition networks; Strategic networks; Affective networks

Term in Context

Example Sentence

To ensure that the activity offered multiple means of engagement, student choice was built in as a way to provide students with a sense of autonomy.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Principle III. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement

Multiple means of representation

The "what" of learning. Students are different in the ways that they perceive and understand information; therefore, it is crucial to provide different ways of presenting content.

Also see: Multiple means of action and expressionMultiple means of engagementRecognition networksStrategic networksAffective networks

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The teacher ensured that there were multiple means of representation for each test item. Students could read the item or listen to the item using text-to-speech. Images or animation depicted the main ideas of the item as well.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Principle I. Provide Multiple Means of Representation

National UDL Task Force

A group of more than 40 national organizations that advocates for the incorporation of UDL in federal, state, and district education policy.

Also see: Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

Source: Adapted from: http://www.advocacyinstitute.org/UDL/

Term in Context

Location within the National Center on UDL Website

Advocacy - National UDL Task Force

Web Resource
National Universal Design for Learning Task Force: http://www.advocacyinstitute.org/UDL/

National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS)

NIMAS refers to a technical standard used to produce XML-based source files. From these well-structured source files, accessible, student-ready alternate-format versions of textbooks and core materials (e.g., Braille, e-text, Digital Talking Book, large print, etc.) can subsequently be created and distributed to qualified students with print disabilities. NIMAS files are not student-ready versions. IDEA 2004, P.L. 108-446, establishes the NIMAS as a national standard and requires states and local districts to adopt the NIMAS for providing textbooks and instructional materials to students who are blind or print-disabled.

Also see: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM) 

Term in Context

Web Resource

National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials: http://aim.cast.org/

No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

The 2001 re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)-- the principal federal law affecting public education from kindergarten through high school in the United States.

Also see: Accountability; Standards-based assessment

Source: http://www.ncld.org/resources1/glossaries/idea-terms-to-know

Term in Context

Web Resource

No Child Left Behind: http://ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtml

Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS)

An office within the U.S. Department of Education, OSERS supports programs that help educate children and youth with disabilities, provides for the rehabilitation of youth and adults with disabilities, and supports research to improve the lives of individuals with disabilities.

Also see: Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP)

Source: Adapted from: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/index.html

Term in Context

Web Resource

Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services:

http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/index.html

Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP)

A federal agency under the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) dedicated to improving results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities ages birth through 21 by providing leadership and financial support to assist states and local districts.

Also see: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) 

Source: Adapted from: http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/osep/index.html

Term in Context

Web Resource

Office of Special Education Programs:

http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/osep/index.html?src=mr

Optimal knowledge

A student's cognitive performance when provided with support and guidance.

See also: Functional knowledge

Source: Fischer & Bidell, 1998; Vygotsky, 1978; Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Tenenbaum, Koepke and Fischer, 2007

Term in Context

Example Sentence

In order to assess the student's optimal knowledge, the student was provided with models and prompts during the activity.

Options in the means

Providing choices and flexibility in the manner or in the way a task or item is approached.

Also see: Flexible curricula; Options in the mode

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The assessment was designed so that students had options in the means for responding to the stimulus by electronic text, illustration, or audio recording. 

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Checkpoint 4.2: Options in the means of navigation

Options in the mode

Providing flexibility in the selection, method, or way a user may respond to a task or item.

Also see: Flexible curricula; Options in the means

Term in Context

Example Sentences

A student with cognitive disabilities needs alternate access to her assignment. Her teacher has an audio version available as well as a version on the student's AT. They will determine which option in the mode for presenting information will work best for her in this assignment.

Pedagogy

The art or science of teaching; education; instructional methods.

Also see: Method; Curriculum

Source: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/pedagogy?o=100074

Term in Context

Example Sentence

UDL holds that effective pedagogy involves planning instruction to account for all students' needs. 

Location within the UDL Guidelines

UDL Guidelines Introduction

Performance-based assessment

A method for measuring knowledge or ability based on a student's performance on a test or given task.

Also see: Formative assessment

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher used performance-based assessments to determine how students were arriving at their answers while performing a task, rather than just assessing after the activity was completed.

Portfolio

A systematic collection of a variety of teacher observations and student work, collected over time, that monitor growth of the student's knowledge, skills, and attitudes in a specific subject area; can be print based or digital.

Also see: Assessment

Term in Context

Example Sentence

During a parent-teacher conference, the teacher shared the student's portfolio with the parents in order to discuss the student's progress.

Print instructional materials

Includes printed textbooks and related printed core materials that are written and published primarily for use in elementary school and secondary school instruction and are required by a SEA or LEA for use by students in a classroom.

Also see: Instructional media; Materials

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Traditional print instructional materials can present barriers to student learning.

Project-based learning

Teaching approach that engages students in sustained, collaborative real-world investigations. Projects are organized around a driving question, and students participate in a variety of tasks that seek to meaningfully address this question.

Also see: Inquiry-based instruction

Source: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/4753

Term in Context

Example Sentence

As part of their project-based learning unit in geometry, teams of students worked together to envision and design a state-of-the-art athletic complex for their high school in the year 2025.

Progress monitoring

A scientifically based practice that is used to assess what students have learned and to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction.

Also see: Mastery oriented feedback; Assessment

Source: http://www.studentprogress.org/

Term in Context

Example Sentences

After using progress monitoring, the teacher was able to see that his lessons were not reaching all of his students. Based on these results, he was able to change his instructional approach. 

Web Resource

National Center on Student Progress Monitoring: http://www.studentprogress.org/

Prompt

A cue that provides assistance or guide an action during a learning task.

Image of a stop and think window

 

 

 

 

 

Image description: There are embedded prompts in this online environment to encourage students to "stop and think." This question prompts students to make a prediction.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

While listening to Mozart's "Symphony 40 in G Minor," the music teacher prompted students to reflect on the type of mood Mozart was trying to create through his use of tempo and various instruments. 

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Prompts are referred to throughout the UDL Guidelines.

Reciprocal teaching

An instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. 

Source: Palincsar, A.S. (1986). Reciprocal teaching. In Teaching reading as thinking. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. 

Term in Context

Example Sentence

As part of her reciprocal teaching approach, the teacher facilitated a discussion among her students as to what they thought was going to happen to the main character in the next chapter.

Recognition networks

Networks in the brain that enable us to identify and understand information, ideas, and concepts; networks specialized to sense and assign meaning to patterns we see, hear, taste, touch, and smell.

Also see: Affective Networks; Strategic networks; Multiple means of action and expression; Multiple means of representation; Multiple means of engagement

brain diagram with the back portion shaded

 

Image description: This schematic drawing of the lateral surface of the human brain shows the regions primarily responsible for recognition.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Identifying the smell of freshly cut grass and recognizing a familiar voice over the phone are everyday examples of your recognition network in action. 

Response to Intervention (RTI)

Integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and to reduce behavior problems.

Source: http://www.rti4success.org/

Term in Context

Example Sentence

RTI and UDL are two educational approaches that recognize the fact that learners may struggle as a result of poor instructional design and not as a result of a disbaility.

Web Resources

National Center on Response to Intervention: http://www.rti4success.org/

Response-to-Instruction and Universal Design for Learning: How Might They Intersect in the General Education Classroom?: http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/RTIandUDL.asp

Rubric

A tool that supports authentic assessment by delineating specific performance criteria arranged in levels to indicate to what degree a standard has been reached; can be integrated into the ongoing learning process to help students and teachers evaluate progress and make adjustments.

Also see: Assessment

image of a rubric with 5 columns and 5 rows

 

 

 

 

Image description: This is a rubric used to judge submissions by teachers of what UDL means to them. All submissions are judged by four criteria: understanding of UDL, clarity of message, creativity, and artistry.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

To clarify the assignment, the teacher created a rubric to show students exactly what she expected them to do. 

Web Resource

Kathy Shrock's Guide for Educators: Assessment Rubrics: http://www.schrockguide.net/assessment-and-rubrics.html

Salience

Prominence or conspicuousness.

Source: Adapted from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/salience

Term in Context

Example Sentence

In order to increase the salience of the day's lesson, the teacher reviewed the goal with the class and wrote it on the whiteboard.

Scaffold

n. A temporary assistive component of an instructional material or method that helps a learner complete the learning task successfully, intended to be removed when mastery is attained.

v. The act of providing temporary assistance in a way designed to let the learner progress.

Also see: Coaches; Mentor; Modeling; Apprenticeship

A Child's Bike with Training Wheels

 

Image description: The training wheels on this bike are an example of a scaffold. Training wheels help a novice learn how to ride a bike and can be removed once mastery is attained.

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The student has difficulty keeping track of information and organizing his thoughts. As a scaffold, the teacher offers the student a graphic organizer to help him manage information. As the student's executive function skills develop, he may generate his own graphic organizer or he may eventually find the scaffold unnecessary.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

A federal law that requires a school district to provide a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to each child with a disability in the district's jurisdiction.

Also see: Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)

Term in Context

Web Resource

Discrimination: Section 504 and ADA: http://www.wrightslaw.com/info/sec504.index.htm

Self-efficacy

People's beliefs about their capabilities to produce effects.

Also see: Affect; Affective networks; Multiple means of engagement

Source: Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Students' self-efficacy beliefs are influenced by the feedback that they receive from parents, teachers, and peers.

Self-monitor

To keep track of, or obtain an intermittent awareness of, how one is doing relative to one's purpose.

Also see: Metacognition; Executive Function (EF)

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher encouraged self-monitoring by giving her students charts to keep track of their individual goals.

Self-regulation

To strategically modulate one’s emotional reactions or states in order to cope or engage with the environment more effectively.

Also see: Metacognition; Executive Function (EF)

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The student kept a simple drawing of a thermometer on his desk as a self-regulation mechanism. He simply filled in a line each time he completed a task, so he could see how close he was to reaching his goal for the day.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Guideline 9: Provide options for self-regulation

Semantic

Of or relating to meaning, especially the meaning of language.

Also see: Semantic map; Syntax

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Realizing their discrepancy was merely a matter of semantics, they began using the same words to make their future discussions easier. 

Semantic map

A strategy for graphically representing concepts; as a strategy, semantic maps involve expanding a student's vocabulary by encouraging new links to familiar concepts; instructionally, semantic maps can be used as a pre-reading activity for charting what is known about a concept, theme, or individual word; they can also be used during reading as a way to assimilate new information learned from the text.

Also see: Graphic organizer; Concept map 

Source: http://www.ldonline.org/glossary#S

image of a semantic map

Image description: This semantic map graphically represents that different concepts that users can explore on the National Center on UDL website.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher used semantic maps to improve his students' word knowledge by making the connections between related words salient.

Sequential Highlighting

To emphasize or make information prominent as they appear in a sequence by differentiated use of color, lighting, sound, or tactile surface.

Source: Adapted from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/highlighting?o=100074

image of text that is highlighted in yellow

Image description: The sequential highlighting in this online environment highlights the paragraph in yellow and highlights each word as it is read in blue.

Term in Context

Example Sentences

A student uses sequential highlighting with text-to-speech, and the computer highlights each word as it is read aloud to her. Hearing and seeing the word at the same time supports the student's comprehension of the text.

Standards

A specific criteria for what students are expected to learn and be able to do.

Also see: Standards-based assessment; No Child Left Behind (NCLB); Accountability

Source: Adapted from: http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Lexicon_of_Learning/S.aspx

Term in Context

Example Sentence

As teams of teachers prepare plans for instruction, they often take into account the district, state or national standards, to help determine what knowledge the student should be able to demonstrate. 

Standards-based assessment

Assessments intended to represent systematically described content and achievement standards.

Also see: Standards; Accountability; No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

Source: http://www.osepideasthatwork.org/toolkit/glossary.asp#D

Term in Context

Example Sentence

After viewing the results on the standards-based assessment, the principle decided that the school needed to re-evaluate how they instructed students with disabilities. 

Strategic networks

Networks in the brain that enable us to plan, execute, and self-monitor actions and skills; networks specialized to generate and oversee mental and motor patterns.

Also see: Recognition networksAffective NetworksMultiple means of action and expressionMultiple means of representationMultiple means of engagement

image of a brain diagram with the front portion shaded

 

Image description: This schematic drawing of the lateral surface of the human brain shows the regions primarily responsible for strategy.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Cooking a meal, planning a vacation, and driving a car are all everyday examples of your strategic network in action.

Summative assessment

A type of test intended to evaluate and document what students have learned; the term is used to distinguish such tests from formative tests, which are used primarily to diagnose what students have learned in order to plan further instruction.

Also see: Standards-based assessment; Formative assessment

Source: Adapted from: http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Lexicon-of-Learning/S.aspx

Term in Context

Example Sentence

After the unit on Gary Paulsen's Hatchet, the teacher assigned students a project as a summative assessment to evaluate what they had learned.

Support

Means to help students overcome deficits in the learning medium that prevent them from accessing or interacting with the content; supports need not necessarily be removed.

Also see: Assistive technology

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The student has a vivid imagination and can create exceptional stories; however, her handwriting is illegible. As a support, she uses a classroom computer or her home laptop to express her ideas.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

Supports are referred to throughout the UDL Guidelines.

Syntax

The rules governing how words are combined into sentences.

Also see: Semantics

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher used the Noam Chomsky line from Syntactic Structures, "Colorless green ideas sleep furiously" as an example of the importance of syntax.

Tactile graphics

Images that are designed to be touched rather than looked at. When information in a print graphic is important to a tactual reader, a tactile graphic may be developed. The concept and content of the graphic are represented by a set of tactile symbols selected to be easily read and understood.

Source: http://www.tactilegraphics.org/whataretgs.html

image of a person reading braille with tactile graphics included

 

Image description: The raised graphic of the otter on the left hand side of the sign is an example of a tactile graphic.

Source: Flickr Creative Commons license, image by William Ng

Term in Context

Example Sentences

While at a field trip to the zoo, the teacher was relieved to find that the signs displaying information about the various animals included tactile graphics. These signs allowed her students with visual impairments to access information along with the rest of their peers.

Template

A model for the form of something, into which content can be added; can scaffold a process or content, and can help students organize and self monitor.

Also see: Modeling, Graphic organizer

image of a template

 

 

Image description: This template was created to access students' prior knowledge about an animal by pointing them to relevant questions.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

In order to scaffold students' prior knowledge about a specific animal, the teacher created a template that had spaces to enter the animal name, what the animal eats, where the animal lives, etc. 

Text-to-Speech (TtS)

The combination of text appearing on the computer display together with the computer speaking that text aloud with a digitized or synthesized voice.

Also see: Assistive technology

Source: Adapted from: http://www.newbedford.k12.ma.us/edtech_toolkit/students/cast/index.htm

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Even through decoding was a challenge for the student, Text-to-Speech allowed her to access the content because she could hear the words read aloud. 

Web Resource

Project Meet: Using Text-to-Speech Technology Resource Guide:

http://www.newbedford.k12.ma.us/edtech_toolkit/students/cast/index.htm

Touch equivalents

A method of using tactual sensory options to access the information as typically available visually, auditorially or kinestheticly.

Also see: Assistive technology

Source: Adapted from: Turp, M. (2000). Touch, enjoyment and health: In adult life. European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling, and Health, 3(1), 61.

Term in Context

Example Sentence

In an art class, touch equivalents were placed on an image to help students with visual impairments focus on lines of perspective.

Transfer

Occurs when learning in one context enhances (positive transfer) or undermines (negative transfer) a related performance in another context.

Also see: Automaticity

Source: Perkins, D. N., & Salomon, G. (1988). Teaching for transfer. Educational Leadership, 46(1), 22-32. 

Term in Context

Example Sentence

To encourage transfer, the teacher always made sure to discuss the information he was teaching across different contexts.

UDL Checkpoints

Specific recommendations that further articulate each of the nine UDL Guidelines.

Also see: UDL Guidelines

UDL Checkpoints for Guideline 1

 

Image description: The three bullets that you see under Guideline 1: "Provide options for perception" are called checkpoints and help to further articulate the guideline.

Term in Context

Example Sentences

It is not necessary to implement every checkpoint in order to practice UDL. The UDL Guidelines and UDL Checkpoints should be applied according to the goals and objectives of each lesson.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

UDL Guidelines Introduction

UDL Guidelines

Developed in response to the call from stakeholders in the education field to make the application of UDL principles and practices more concrete. The nine UDL Guidelines are organized according to the three main principles of UDL that address representation, expression, and engagement. They are not meant to be a “prescription” but a set of strategies that can be employed to overcome the barriers inherent in most existing curricula. 

Also see: UDL Checkpoints

udl guidelines graphic organizer

Image description: This graphic organizer displays the nine UDL Guidelines and the corresponding thirty-one checkpoints. The graphic organizer is color coded according to the three principles of UDL: pink for "Multiple Means of Representation," blue for "Multiple Means of Action and Expression," and green for "Multiple Means of Engagement."

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher used the UDL Guidelines as a framework for her lesson in order to build in the options and the flexibility necessary to maximize all students' learning.  

Location within the UDL Guidelines

UDL Guidelines Introduction

Universal Design (UD)

The design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.

Source: http://design.ncsu.edu/cud/about_ud/about_ud.htm

Term in Context

Example Sentences

The origin of UDL began with the Universal Design movement. CAST has worked to apply the concept of UD beyond access and focus on learning. With a UDL framework, curricula is designed from the start with the broadest range of learners in mind.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

UDL Guidelines Introduction

Web Resource

Center for Universal Design: http://design.ncsu.edu/cud/index.htm

Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

An educational approach with three primary principles:  

1. Multiple means of representation, to give diverse learners options for acquiring information and knowledge

2. Multiple means of action and expression, to provide learners options for demonstrating what they know

3. Multiple means of engagement, to tap into learners' interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation

Also see: National UDL Task Force; Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST); Multiple means of action and expression; Multiple means of engagement; Multiple means of representation

Source: http://www.cast.org/about/index.html

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The teacher decided to develop her curriculum with UDL principles in mind, because she understood the importance of planning for learners' diversity prior to instruction.

Location within the UDL Guidelines

UDL Guidelines Introduction

Web Resource

CAST: www.cast.org

Wiki

A particular type of web site that allows collaborative authoring and editing of the content of that web site.

Also see: Multimedia

Term in Context

Example Sentence

Before beginning their new physics project, the teacher set up a wiki because he knew that the project would require collaboration between students. 

Working memory

The ability to store and manage information in one's mind for a short period of time; in one test of working memory a person listens to random numbers and then repeats them; the average adult can hold seven numbers in their working memory; working memory is sometimes called Short-term memory.

Also see: Mnemonic

Source: http://www.ldonline.org/glossary#W

Term in Context

Example Sentence

The student's weakness in working memory made reading difficult because she could not always recall what she had just read. 

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

A term coined by psychologist Lev Vygotsky to mean the range of challenge in which a learner can progress because the task is neither too hard nor too easy.

Also see: Scaffold

Term in Context

Example Sentence

When assigning math homework, the teacher considered each student's individual ZPD to make sure they all had the appropriate level of challenge and support.

Last Updated: 11/05/2013

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