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In the context of technology, accessibility most commonly refers to providing access for all people to web environments, including people with disabilities. Designing sites for the way that screen readers, text browsers, and other adaptive technologies interact with the web; choosing contrasting colors for readability; and providing alternative text tags for graphics are examples of making web sites more accessible.
The National Center on Universal Design for Learning website was designed to be compatible with screen readers in order to increase its accessibility.
Specialized formats of curricular content that can be used by and with learners who have print disablilities and include: braille, audio, large print, and electronic text.
Also see: NIMAS
The student, who is visually impaired, relies on several different forms of accessible instructional materials in order to access her printed textbooks. She prefers to use a Braille format in the classroom and an audio format at home.
National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials: http://aim.cast.org/
A change in instruction that does not result in a change in the standards or instructional goals for a student.
Source: Adapted from: Ysseldyke, J., Thurlow, M., Seyfarth, A., Bielinski, J., Moody, M., & Haigh, J. (1999). NCEO Maryland/Kentucky Report 6. National Center on Educational Outcomes.
The student will need to use her assistive technology in math class to manipulate objects using a touch screen as an accommodation to instruction.
The idea or belief that schools and teachers must take responsibility for measurable student learning.
As part of the state's accountability system, all students must take a state-wide English Language Arts and Mathematics assessment.
The experience of feeling or emotion.
The teacher was concerned because he noticed a change in the student's affect; usually she was energetic and lively, and today she appeared disinterested and preoccupied.
Networks in the brain that enable us to engage with learning; networks specialized to evaluate patterns and impact emotional significance to them.
Preferences for movies, motivation to get up early and go to the gym, and nervous feelings before a big presentation are all everyday examples of your affective network in action.
Federal law that protects persons with disabilities from discrimination in the operations of public businesses and governments.
Information and Technical Assistance on the Americans with Disabilities Act: http://www.ada.gov/
Refers to a relationship between a novice and an expert in which the expert supports the novice by providing ample opportunities to practice; ongoing, immediate, and relevant feedback; and opportunities to demonstrate skill.
When teaching how to draw, the art teacher used an apprenticeship model, giving novice students hands-on experience and the opportunity to learn from more experienced peers.
Apprenticeships are referred to throughout the UDL Guidelines.
Learners make progress when the task they put their minds to is neither overwhelmingly difficult nor boringly easy.
The student found that Lois Lowry's The Giver was written at an appropriate level of challenge. She was able to comprehend the dialog and storyline, and she was challenged by a few vocabulary terms that she needed to look up in the dictionary.
Assessment is described as the process of gathering information about a learner’s performance using a variety of methods and materials in order to determine learners’ knowledge, skills, and motivation for the purpose of making informed educational decisions. Within the UDL framework, the goal is to improve the accuracy and timeliness of assessments, and to ensure that they are comprehensive and articulate enough to guide instruction – for all learners. This is achieved in part by keen focus on the goal, as distinct from the means, enabling the provision of supports and scaffolds for construct irrelevant items. By broadening means to accommodate learner variability, UDL assessments reduce or remove barriers to accurate measurement of learner knowledge, skills, and engagement.
Assessments can provide teachers with data regarding students' progress and can also inform teachers regarding the effectiveness of their instructional techniques.
Devices or services that are used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a student with a disability.
Also see: Supports
Source: Adapted from: http://idea.ed.gov/download/statute.html IDEA 2004 34 C.F.R. 300.5, 300.6
Text-to-speech (TtS) software is an assistive technology that reads any digital text aloud.
A general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness; skills become automatic after extended periods of training with practice and good instruction.
Also see: Transfer
Source: Adapted from: http://www.ldonline.org/glossary#A
The student's automaticity in reading allows her to have a deeper understanding of complex essays since her brain does not have to spend a lot of energy in decoding the text.
A graphical image that represents a person, as on the Internet.
The students created avatars to look like themselves: they had choices in hair, skin, eye color, and even in the types of clothing.
Anything that restrains or obstructs progress in fulfilling the task at hand.
Source: Adapted from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/barriers
The student is unable to decode the text of a short story he is assigned for his English class. Even though he understands the language and story structure, he is unable to read for understanding since decoding is a barrier to his learning.
Barriers are referred to throughout the UDL Guidelines:
A nonprofit research and development organization that works to expand learning opportunities for all individuals, especially those with disabilities, through Universal Design for Learning.
Also see: Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
A procedure of breaking up learning materials into manageable sections (e,g., grouping of words in sentences into short meaningful phrases).
Source: Adapted from: Casteel, C. (1988). Effects of chunked reading among learning disabled students: An experimental comparison of computer and traditional chunked passages. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 17(2), 115-21.
Instead of asking the student to complete the entire chapter in one night, the teacher and the student worked together to chunk the assignment into more manageable pieces.
Live or animated support provided by an agent to help the performance of a task; aimed at improving the performance of the learner.
A coach embedded into a learning environment designed to teach students about states of matter asked students, "What is the process of sublimation?"
Having to do with the mental processes by which knowledge is acquired.
The teacher used several techniques to develop students' cognitive skills during the lesson. She asked students to make predictions, ask clarifying questions, and summarize information.
An umbrella term for the variety of approaches and models in education that involve the shared intellectual efforts by students working in small groups to accomplish a goal or complete a task.
As a final project for the unit on The Revolutionary War, the teacher wanted to focus on collaborative learning. The class was responsible for writing and producing a fifteen minute play that would capture a critical event that took place during the War.
A visual display that supports comprehension by depicting the relationships between concepts within a learning task.
In order to support students' understanding of the causes of the Civil War, the teacher asked students to create a concept map that depicted the relationship between the various events.
The extent to which test scores are influenced by factors (e.g., mode of presentation or response) that are irrelevant (not related) to the construct that the test is intended to measure.
Also see: Construct relevant
Source: Adapted from: American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association, p. 173.
Changing the font size and increasing the sizing of images helped the student to see the math item more clearly; this change was construct irrelevant to the math skills being assessed by the item.
Refers to the factors (e.g. mode of presentation or response) that are relevant (related) to the construct that the test is intended to measure.
Also see: Construct irrelevant
Source: Adopted from: Madaus, G., Russell, M. & Higgins, J. (2009). The paradoxes of high stakes testing: How they affect students, their parents, teachers, principals, schools and society. Information Age Publishing, Inc.: Charlotte, NC.
The teacher wanted to adapt an assessment item to make it more accessible for his student. However, he realized that identifying the symbols for a math calculation problem is a construct relevant change to the assessment item.
The overall plan for instruction, and the materials, methods, and assessments to carry out the plan; comprised of four main components:
1. Goals and milestones for instruction
2. Media and materials to be used by students
3. Specific instructional methods
4. Means of assessment to measure student progress
The UDL framework can be applied to all aspects of the curriculum in order to decrease barriers and increase opportunities for learning.
The ability to sound out letters and words.
Since the student was not able to decode the text, he was not able to access the meaning or to fully participate in the class discussion.
An approach to teaching that includes various approaches to content, process, and product in order to meet the needs of student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs.
Source: Adapted from: Tomlinson, C. A., (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. (2nd Ed.) Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Differentiated Instruction and UDL share the same goal: to maximize learning opportunities for all students. The distinction between the two frameworks lies within the goal; DI focuses on differentiating with a focus at the student level, whereas UDL focuses on designing flexible curricula with the needs of the broadest range of students in mind from the start.
An instructional approach that emphasizes the use of carefully sequenced steps (i.e., scripted lectures or demonstrations) to teach specific academic content; the approach is contrasted with more open-ended approaches, such as hands-on learning or inquiry-based learning.
The teacher used a carefully scripted lesson to provide direct instruction on phonics.
Direct Instruction: http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/cai/Cai3/cai3direct.htm
Differences between students in ability/disability, culture, language, race, background, etc.
UDL gives us a framework for addressing the diversity of the students in our classrooms.
A book, article, or other published material that can be retrieved by and read via an electronic device.
Instead of reading the article in the magazine, I obtained the e-text version and had my laptop read it aloud to me while I was on the train.
The principal federal law affecting public education from kindergarten through high school in the United States. From 2001-2009, the law was known as the No Child Left Behind Act but is again referred to as ESEA in current policy discussions.
Elementary and Secondary Education: http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/beginning.html
A method for measuring knowledge and ability where evaluations are part of the learning activity rather than happening after the fact.
The teacher found that one advantage of using technology was embedded assessment; it allowed her to see student progress within the learning activity rather than just after instruction.
A term used to describe students who are in the process of acquiring English language skills and knowledge; some schools refer to these students using the term limited-English-proficient (LEP).
Also see: Diversity
The student from Italy was placed with the other ELLs at a beginner level.
National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/
Associated with the prefrontal cortex in the brain, these capabilities allow humans to overcome impulsive, short-term reactions to their environment and to instead set long-term goals, plan effective strategies for reaching those goals, monitor their progress, and modify strategies as needed.
In order to support the student's executive functions in an assessment situation, the teacher provided him with a graphic organizer indicating all the items on his test. The graphic also showed the student where he could take a break. This strategy allowed him to monitor his progress as he completed test items.
An evaluative response about the result of a process or activity.
Also see: Formative assessment
The teacher provided the student with constructive feedback on ways to improve his project on the water cycle. She stated that she was impressed by the visual that he created to depict water's journey, and she suggested that he may also want to include labels for each step.
Curricula designed to be adjustable from the beginning, so it can adapt to the needs of diverse learners without significant add-ons.
The teacher found that it was more efficient to create flexible curricula that accounted for all learners from the start rather than modifying preexisting curricula.
Special education and related services provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge mandated by IDEA.
Free Appropriate Public Education for Students With Disabilities: Requirements Under Section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/edlite-FAPE504.html
Assessments given primarily to determine what students have learned in order to plan further instruction during the instructional episode; by contrast, an examination used primarily to document students' achievement at the end of a unit or course is considered a summative test.
Source: Adapted from: http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Lexicon_of_Learning/F.aspx
The teacher's use of formative assessment allowed her to adjust her daily lessons and instruction in order to maximize just in time learning.
A student's cognitive performance under ordinary, low-support conditions.
Also see: Optimal knowledge
Sources: Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Today, the teacher is assessing one of her student's functional knowledge. The student will be provided with the access supports that he typically uses (large print and high contrast materials); however, he will not be provided with scaffolds such as models or prompts.
A visual representation of textual information and ideas. Concept maps, story maps, advance organizers, story webs, semantic maps, and cognitive organizers are all commonly used graphic organizers.
In order to support his students' writing, the teacher provided graphic organizers to facilitate the organization of their ideas.
Reauthorizes the Higher Education Act of 1965 (Pub. L. No. 89-329), legislation signed into United States law on November 8, 1965 as part of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society domestic agenda. The law was intended “to strengthen the educational resources of our colleges and universities and to provide financial assistance for students in postsecondary and higher education.”
The 2008 reauthorization established the first statutory definition for universal design for learning. This definition incorporates the three principles of UDL--representation, expression, and engagement--and emphasizes reducing barriers with appropriate supports and challenges built into instruction.
Source: Adapted from: http://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Higher-Education-Act-of-1965
Higher Education Opportunity Act - 2008: http://ed.gov/policy/highered/leg/hea08/index.html
UDL language highlighted within the HEOA: http://www.advocacyinstitute.org/UDL/HEOA.shtml
A piece of text or a graphic within an electronic document that provides access to content within another document or website.
While searching the web, the student clicked on a hyperlinked word, and a new window with a definition of the word.
A federal law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation, IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities.
Source: Adapted from: http://idea.ed.gov/
Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004 http://idea.ed.gov/
A student-centered and teacher-guided instructional approach that engages students in investigating real world questions that they choose within a broad thematic framework; students acquire and analyze information, develop and support propositions, provide solutions, and design technology and arts products that demonstrate their thinking and make their learning visible.
Also see: Project-based learning
As part of the inquiry-based instructional unit on green energy, students were responsible for collecting information about the school's energy efficiency, developing at least three recommendations, and presenting these recommendations to the school board.
Inquiry Based Science: What does it look like?
Materials that teachers use to teach and students use to learn (for example, printed text, digitized text, speech, images). When individual forms of instructional media (text, video, audio) are combined to represent information in multiple ways they are called multimedia.
For the unit on the Civil Rights Movement, the social studies teacher included a range of instructional media: video clips, the era's most popular songs, primary source documents, and a slide show of photographs.
Lessons that integrate math, science, language arts, and/or other subject areas in the process of teaching and learning about a specific topic.
The 3rd grade team worked together to design an integrated unit on the ocean that incorporated content in marine biology, geography, ecology, history, mathematics, and literature.
Subject matter benchmarks used to measure students' academic achievement; guidelines published by professional organizations or enacted by government specifying what is to be taught and learned.
Also see: Standards-based assessment
As educators design lesson plans, they often take into account the district, state or national learning standards to help determine what knowledge the student should be able to demonstrate.
Refers to the IDEA’s mandate that schools educate students with disabilities in integrated settings, alongside students with and without disabilities, to the maximum extent appropriate.
Source: Adapted from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/mainstreaming-inclusion/
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) & FAPE
An effective way to allow a reader to focus on the more relevant information of the text; done by covering up unnecessary text as well as hiding other distractions.
Source: Adapted from: www.cehd.umn.edu/nceo/Teleconferences/tele16/AccommodationGuidelines2008-2009.pdf
The teacher encouraged some of her students to place a piece of paper under the line of text that they were reading. This strategy allowed the students to focus on one line of text at a time and masked the other text on the page.
Feedback that emphasizes the role of effort and practice rather than “intelligence” or inherent “ability.”
Also see: Progress monitoring
Source: Adapted from: Kamins, M. L., & Dweck, C. S. (1999). Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping. Developmental Psychology, 35(3), 835-847.
The teacher used mastery-oriented feedback to notify one student in her reading group how he was doing. Rather than telling him he was "very smart," she commented on how he was working hard at answering in complete sentences.
Materials are usually seen as the media used to present learning content and what the learner uses to demonstrate knowledge. Within the UDL framework, the hallmark of materials is their variability and flexibility. For conveying conceptual knowledge, UDL materials offer multiple media and embedded, just-in-time supports such as hyperlinked glossaries, background information, and on-screen coaching. For strategic learning and expression of knowledge, UDL materials offer tools and supports needed to access, analyze, organize, synthesize, and demonstrate understanding in varied ways. For engaging with learning, UDL materials offer alternative pathways to success including choice of content where appropriate, varied levels of support and challenge, and options for recruiting and sustaining interest and motivation.
In order to develop students' ability to manage information, the English teacher created a checklist of the materials that they were responsible for bring to class each day: grammar textbook, ELA textbook, and their writing manuals.
The ability to access, analyze, evaluate and create media in a variety of forms.
Also see: Multimedia
As an ongoing theme throughout the school year, the teacher worked to develop students' media literacy. She used an array of formats to present content, and she varied the media with which students could use to express their learning.
Something inherent to the mode of presentation that is immaterial that obstructs or impedes access to and or use.
Source: Adapted from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/barriers?fromAsk=true&o=100074
The small font size of the student's copy of The Call of the Wild presented a media-specific barrier since the student could not clearly see the words on each page.
An expert who acts as a kind of guide or coach to a novice who is learning a new skill.
The school created a "Reading Buddies" program where sixth grade students act as mentors to first grade students during reading time.
Resources for Teacher Leadership: Mentoring and Coaching
The ability to be self-reflective or aware of one's own progress as a learner.
Also see: Metacognition
At the end of the school year, the teacher asked students to reflect about their learning over the course of the year in their journals as a way to develop meta-awareness.
The process of "thinking about thinking." For example, good readers use metacognition before reading when they clarify their purpose for reading and preview the text.
Also see: Meta-awareness
In an effort to develop students' metacognition, the teacher asked students to describe, in their own words, the purpose of the assignment.
Methods are generally defined as the instructional decisions, approaches, procedures, or routines that expert teachers use to accelerate or enhance learning. Expert teachers apply evidence-based methods and differentiate those methods according to the goal of instruction. UDL curricula facilitate further differentiation of methods, based on learner variability in the context of the task, learner’s social/emotional resources, and the classroom climate. Flexible and varied, UDL methods are adjusted based on continual monitoring of learner progress.
The teacher decided to try a creative method in this math class. He sang a song about fractions as a way to introduce this concept to his students.
Having to do with memory.
Also see: Working memory
The music teacher introduced a mnemonic device to help her students learn the lines of the treble staff - EGBDF: "Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge."
A category of function; for example, vision, hearing, and touch are different sensory modalities.
Also see: Multi-modal
In order to incorporate a range of modalities in the lesson on the life cycle of plants, the teachers encouraged students to touch, smell, and feel the different seeds that were on the table.
Learning Modalities: Pathways to Effective Learning
1. To "show" or "demonstrate." A teacher may clarify to students what is expected by performing the behavior as a model of what to do. The purpose of this form of modeling is clear communication.
2. To "practice what you preach." In regular practice and behavior, the teacher is a model of thoroughness, or self-evaluation, or courtesy, or whatever else is expected of students.
Source: Saphier, J., & Gower, R. (1997). The skillful teacher: Building your teaching skills. Acton, Massachusetts: Research fro Better Teaching, Inc. (p. 298).
In order to demonstrate proper technique, the teacher modeled to students how to begin to dissect the frog.
When a curriculum modification is made, either the specific subject matter is altered, or the performance level expected of the student is changed; a curriculum modification is made when a student is either taught something different from the rest of the class or taught the same information but at a different level of complexity.
Source: Nolet, V., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2005). Accessing the general curriculum: Including students with disabilities in standards-based reform. CA: Corwin Press, Inc. (p. 87)
The student's IEP team decided to make a modification to the unit on Mark Twain's Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Instead of reading the original work, the student would read an abridged version written at his individual reading level.
Source: Adapted from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/multi-modal
The teacher took a multi-modal approach to the lesson on magnetism. He began the lesson with a video and then designed an activity where students could touch and interact with real magnets.
Combining several media in one presentation; for example a multimedia Web page may combine text, graphics, audio clips, and video.
The student's multimedia presentation on climate change impressed her audience; her peers and her teacher were highly engaged by her use of graphics, video, and audio clips.
The "how" of learning. Students are different in the ways that they express their knowledge; therefore, it is crucial to allow them to express verbally, physically, with written text, etc.
The teacher used multiple means of action and expression to assess what students had learned during the unit on the nervous system; students had the option of creating a diagram, an animation, a magazine article, or a poster.
The "why" of learning. Students are different in the ways that they will become interested or motivated to learn; therefore, it is crucial to provide multiple ways to engage learners.
To ensure that the activity offered multiple means of engagement, student choice was built in as a way to provide students with a sense of autonomy.
The "what" of learning. Students are different in the ways that they perceive and understand information; therefore, it is crucial to provide different ways of presenting content.
The teacher ensured that there were multiple means of representation for each test item. Students could read the item or listen to the item using text-to-speech. Images or animation depicted the main ideas of the item as well.
A group of more than 40 national organizations that advocates for the incorporation of UDL in federal, state, and district education policy.
Also see: Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
Source: Adapted from: http://www.advocacyinstitute.org/UDL/
NIMAS refers to a technical standard used to produce XML-based source files. From these well-structured source files, accessible, student-ready alternate-format versions of textbooks and core materials (e.g., Braille, e-text, Digital Talking Book, large print, etc.) can subsequently be created and distributed to qualified students with print disabilities. NIMAS files are not student-ready versions. IDEA 2004, P.L. 108-446, establishes the NIMAS as a national standard and requires states and local districts to adopt the NIMAS for providing textbooks and instructional materials to students who are blind or print-disabled.
National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials: http://aim.cast.org/
The 2001 re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)-- the principal federal law affecting public education from kindergarten through high school in the United States.
No Child Left Behind: http://ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtml
An office within the U.S. Department of Education, OSERS supports programs that help educate children and youth with disabilities, provides for the rehabilitation of youth and adults with disabilities, and supports research to improve the lives of individuals with disabilities.
Source: Adapted from: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/index.html
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services:
A federal agency under the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) dedicated to improving results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities ages birth through 21 by providing leadership and financial support to assist states and local districts.
Source: Adapted from: http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/osep/index.html
Office of Special Education Programs:
A student's cognitive performance when provided with support and guidance.
See also: Functional knowledge
Source: Fischer & Bidell, 1998; Vygotsky, 1978; Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Tenenbaum, Koepke and Fischer, 2007
In order to assess the student's optimal knowledge, the student was provided with models and prompts during the activity.
Providing choices and flexibility in the manner or in the way a task or item is approached.
The assessment was designed so that students had options in the means for responding to the stimulus by electronic text, illustration, or audio recording.
Providing flexibility in the selection, method, or way a user may respond to a task or item.
A student with cognitive disabilities needs alternate access to her assignment. Her teacher has an audio version available as well as a version on the student's AT. They will determine which option in the mode for presenting information will work best for her in this assignment.
The art or science of teaching; education; instructional methods.
UDL holds that effective pedagogy involves planning instruction to account for all students' needs.
A method for measuring knowledge or ability based on a student's performance on a test or given task.
Also see: Formative assessment
The teacher used performance-based assessments to determine how students were arriving at their answers while performing a task, rather than just assessing after the activity was completed.
A systematic collection of a variety of teacher observations and student work, collected over time, that monitor growth of the student's knowledge, skills, and attitudes in a specific subject area; can be print based or digital.
Also see: Assessment
During a parent-teacher conference, the teacher shared the student's portfolio with the parents in order to discuss the student's progress.
Electronic Portfolios: http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schrockguide/assess.html#portfolios
Includes printed textbooks and related printed core materials that are written and published primarily for use in elementary school and secondary school instruction and are required by a SEA or LEA for use by students in a classroom.
Traditional print instructional materials can present barriers to student learning.
Teaching approach that engages students in sustained, collaborative real-world investigations. Projects are organized around a driving question, and students participate in a variety of tasks that seek to meaningfully address this question.
Also see: Inquiry-based instruction
As part of their project-based learning unit in geometry, teams of students worked together to envision and design a state-of-the-art athletic complex for their high school in the year 2025.
A scientifically based practice that is used to assess what students have learned and to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction.
After using progress monitoring, the teacher was able to see that his lessons were not reaching all of his students. Based on these results, he was able to change his instructional approach.
National Center on Student Progress Monitoring: http://www.studentprogress.org/
A cue that provides assistance or guide an action during a learning task.
While listening to Mozart's "Symphony 40 in G Minor," the music teacher prompted students to reflect on the type of mood Mozart was trying to create through his use of tempo and various instruments.
An instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue.
Source: Palincsar, A.S. (1986). Reciprocal teaching. In Teaching reading as thinking. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
As part of her reciprocal teaching approach, the teacher facilitated a discussion among her students as to what they thought was going to happen to the main character in the next chapter.
Reciprocal Teaching: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/atrisk/at6lk38.htm
Networks in the brain that enable us to identify and understand information, ideas, and concepts; networks specialized to sense and assign meaning to patterns we see, hear, taste, touch, and smell.
Identifying the smell of freshly cut grass and recognizing a familiar voice over the phone are everyday examples of your recognition network in action.
Integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and to reduce behavior problems.
RTI and UDL are two educational approaches that recognize the fact that learners may struggle as a result of poor instructional design and not as a result of a disbaility.
National Center on Response to Intervention: http://www.rti4success.org/
Response-to-Instruction and Universal Design for Learning: How Might They Intersect in the General Education Classroom?: http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/RTIandUDL.asp
A tool that supports authentic assessment by delineating specific performance criteria arranged in levels to indicate to what degree a standard has been reached; can be integrated into the ongoing learning process to help students and teachers evaluate progress and make adjustments.
Also see: Assessment
To clarify the assignment, the teacher created a rubric to show students exactly what she expected them to do.
Kathy Shrock's Guide for Educators: Assessment Rubrics: http://www.schrockguide.net/assessment-and-rubrics.html
Prominence or conspicuousness.
Source: Adapted from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/salience
In order to increase the salience of the day's lesson, the teacher reviewed the goal with the class and wrote it on the whiteboard.
n. A temporary assistive component of an instructional material or method that helps a learner complete the learning task successfully, intended to be removed when mastery is attained.
v. The act of providing temporary assistance in a way designed to let the learner progress.
The student has difficulty keeping track of information and organizing his thoughts. As a scaffold, the teacher offers the student a graphic organizer to help him manage information. As the student's executive function skills develop, he may generate his own graphic organizer or he may eventually find the scaffold unnecessary.
A federal law that requires a school district to provide a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to each child with a disability in the district's jurisdiction.
Also see: Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Discrimination: Section 504 and ADA: http://www.wrightslaw.com/info/sec504.index.htm
People's beliefs about their capabilities to produce effects.
Source: Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press.
Students' self-efficacy beliefs are influenced by the feedback that they receive from parents, teachers, and peers.
To keep track of, or obtain an intermittent awareness of, how one is doing relative to one's purpose.
The teacher encouraged self-monitoring by giving her students charts to keep track of their individual goals.
To strategically modulate one’s emotional reactions or states in order to cope or engage with the environment more effectively.
The student kept a simple drawing of a thermometer on his desk as a self-regulation mechanism. He simply filled in a line each time he completed a task, so he could see how close he was to reaching his goal for the day.
Of or relating to meaning, especially the meaning of language.
Realizing their discrepancy was merely a matter of semantics, they began using the same words to make their future discussions easier.
A strategy for graphically representing concepts; as a strategy, semantic maps involve expanding a student's vocabulary by encouraging new links to familiar concepts; instructionally, semantic maps can be used as a pre-reading activity for charting what is known about a concept, theme, or individual word; they can also be used during reading as a way to assimilate new information learned from the text.
The teacher used semantic maps to improve his students' word knowledge by making the connections between related words salient.
To emphasize or make information prominent as they appear in a sequence by differentiated use of color, lighting, sound, or tactile surface.
Source: Adapted from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/highlighting?o=100074
A student uses sequential highlighting with text-to-speech, and the computer highlights each word as it is read aloud to her. Hearing and seeing the word at the same time supports the student's comprehension of the text.
A specific criteria for what students are expected to learn and be able to do.
Source: Adapted from: http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Lexicon_of_Learning/S.aspx
As teams of teachers prepare plans for instruction, they often take into account the district, state or national standards, to help determine what knowledge the student should be able to demonstrate.
Assessments intended to represent systematically described content and achievement standards.
After viewing the results on the standards-based assessment, the principle decided that the school needed to re-evaluate how they instructed students with disabilities.
Networks in the brain that enable us to plan, execute, and self-monitor actions and skills; networks specialized to generate and oversee mental and motor patterns.
Cooking a meal, planning a vacation, and driving a car are all everyday examples of your strategic network in action.
A type of test intended to evaluate and document what students have learned; the term is used to distinguish such tests from formative tests, which are used primarily to diagnose what students have learned in order to plan further instruction.
Source: Adapted from: http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Lexicon-of-Learning/S.aspx
After the unit on Gary Paulsen's Hatchet, the teacher assigned students a project as a summative assessment to evaluate what they had learned.
Means to help students overcome deficits in the learning medium that prevent them from accessing or interacting with the content; supports need not necessarily be removed.
Also see: Assistive technology
The student has a vivid imagination and can create exceptional stories; however, her handwriting is illegible. As a support, she uses a classroom computer or her home laptop to express her ideas.
The rules governing how words are combined into sentences.
Also see: Semantics
The teacher used the Noam Chomsky line from Syntactic Structures, "Colorless green ideas sleep furiously" as an example of the importance of syntax.
Images that are designed to be touched rather than looked at. When information in a print graphic is important to a tactual reader, a tactile graphic may be developed. The concept and content of the graphic are represented by a set of tactile symbols selected to be easily read and understood.
While at a field trip to the zoo, the teacher was relieved to find that the signs displaying information about the various animals included tactile graphics. These signs allowed her students with visual impairments to access information along with the rest of their peers.
A model for the form of something, into which content can be added; can scaffold a process or content, and can help students organize and self monitor.
In order to scaffold students' prior knowledge about a specific animal, the teacher created a template that had spaces to enter the animal name, what the animal eats, where the animal lives, etc.
The combination of text appearing on the computer display together with the computer speaking that text aloud with a digitized or synthesized voice.
Also see: Assistive technology
Source: Adapted from: http://www.newbedford.k12.ma.us/edtech_toolkit/students/cast/index.htm
Even through decoding was a challenge for the student, Text-to-Speech allowed her to access the content because she could hear the words read aloud.
Project Meet: Using Text-to-Speech Technology Resource Guide:
A method of using tactual sensory options to access the information as typically available visually, auditorially or kinestheticly.
Also see: Assistive technology
Source: Adapted from: Turp, M. (2000). Touch, enjoyment and health: In adult life. European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling, and Health, 3(1), 61.
In an art class, touch equivalents were placed on an image to help students with visual impairments focus on lines of perspective.
Occurs when learning in one context enhances (positive transfer) or undermines (negative transfer) a related performance in another context.
Also see: Automaticity
Source: Perkins, D. N., & Salomon, G. (1988). Teaching for transfer. Educational Leadership, 46(1), 22-32.
To encourage transfer, the teacher always made sure to discuss the information he was teaching across different contexts.
Specific recommendations that further articulate each of the nine UDL Guidelines.
Also see: UDL Guidelines
It is not necessary to implement every checkpoint in order to practice UDL. The UDL Guidelines and UDL Checkpoints should be applied according to the goals and objectives of each lesson.
Developed in response to the call from stakeholders in the education field to make the application of UDL principles and practices more concrete. The nine UDL Guidelines are organized according to the three main principles of UDL that address representation, expression, and engagement. They are not meant to be a “prescription” but a set of strategies that can be employed to overcome the barriers inherent in most existing curricula.
Also see: UDL Checkpoints
The teacher used the UDL Guidelines as a framework for her lesson in order to build in the options and the flexibility necessary to maximize all students' learning.
The design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.
The origin of UDL began with the Universal Design movement. CAST has worked to apply the concept of UD beyond access and focus on learning. With a UDL framework, curricula is designed from the start with the broadest range of learners in mind.
Center for Universal Design: http://design.ncsu.edu/cud/index.htm
An educational approach with three primary principles:
1. Multiple means of representation, to give diverse learners options for acquiring information and knowledge
2. Multiple means of action and expression, to provide learners options for demonstrating what they know
3. Multiple means of engagement, to tap into learners' interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation
A particular type of web site that allows collaborative authoring and editing of the content of that web site.
Also see: Multimedia
Before beginning their new physics project, the teacher set up a wiki because he knew that the project would require collaboration between students.
The ability to store and manage information in one's mind for a short period of time; in one test of working memory a person listens to random numbers and then repeats them; the average adult can hold seven numbers in their working memory; working memory is sometimes called Short-term memory.
Also see: Mnemonic
The student's weakness in working memory made reading difficult because she could not always recall what she had just read.
A term coined by psychologist Lev Vygotsky to mean the range of challenge in which a learner can progress because the task is neither too hard nor too easy.
Also see: Scaffold
When assigning math homework, the teacher considered each student's individual ZPD to make sure they all had the appropriate level of challenge and support.
Last Updated: 11/05/2013